Assco. Prof. Wei Liu
School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, China
Research Area: Organic-inorganic hybrid materials
Prof. Ts Dr Ahmad Zuhairi bin Abdullah
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Title: Prospect and Challenges of Biodiesel Blends as Renewable Fuel Sources Towards Sustainability of the Industry: A Malaysia Perspective
Abstract: Biodiesel is the most potential substitute for fossil fuel so far owing to its renewability, sustainable production rate and capability to fulfillment the required fuel specifications. However, there are some technical issues with regards to the green features of the biodiesel production process especially the quality of feedstock, huge amount of wastewater and overproduction of glycerol. Biodiesel often require special additives or fuel heating systems to operate in colder climates. It may also cause some rubber seals and gaskets to fail. It also degrades some hoses, glues and plastics with prolonged exposure. Biodiesel can dissolve sediments in diesel fuel tanks and clog fuel filters. Fully converted monoalkyl esters are the major requirement with regards to biodiesel quality. Unconverted triglicerides could polymerize and eventually build up in the fuel lines. Diesel engine normally has a higher oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emission profile. Producing biodiesel which consistently meets ASTM D6751-19 or EN 14214:2008 is not easily achieved. Biodiesel should also not be stored longer than 6 months. If it is necessary, the acid value should be monitored and necessary additive should be considered to avoid excessive free fatty acid formation. The condensed water in the fuel tank can also support the growth of bacteria and mold. In terms of implementation of biodiesel programs, weak domestic demand and uncompetitive export tax structure are among the factors that can hold back the success of the biodiesel programs. Despite several biodiesel programs introduced on B5, B7, B10 and more recently B20, the success of its implementation is rather limited due to engine technical compatibility, its relatively high price and unfavorable international policy for the use of palm oil in biofuel program. Besides, the surplus of glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel industry in the market is a challenging situation as it is now considered a waste material.